Gender stereotypes associating science, technology, engineering and maths with masculinity can discourage girls from pursuing these fields.
Women are under-represented in STEM fields, which can make it difficult for girls to envision these careers.
Women in STEM may face bias and discrimination, including unequal pay, lack of access to promotion, and limited opportunities for leadership roles.
Girls and women may have less access to resources such as STEM-focused extracurricular activities, mentors, and networking opportunities.
Cultural and social factors may contribute to gender differences in STEM, including gender socialization practices that disadvantage women.